KG 54

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Kampfgeschwader 54 (Totenkopf Geschwader) - B3+

Image:Totenkopf.jpgImage:KG54_Emblem.jpg


Establishment

Aircraft operated during the existance of the unit included – Fokker G.1, Go 145, He 111, He 177, Ju 87, Ju 88, SM-82 and W.34.

Formation

Stab

1 May 1939 - formed at Fritzlar with a stabstaffel by the simple expedient of redesignating Stab/KG254. [1]

1 Sep 1939 - Stab moved from Fritzlar to Guettersloh prior to mobilisation.

I./KG 54

1 May 1939 - formed at Fritzlar by redesignating I./KG254. [1]

II./KG 54

15 Dec 1939 - formed at about this date at Hoya (SSE of Bremen) by redesignating II./KG 28. [1]

III./KG 54

1 Feb 1940 - Formed Wiener Neustadt (Austria) from elements of I. and II./ KG 54 plus some personnel drawn from the training schools.

19 Jul 1940 - at approximately this date the gruppe was disbanded at Munster-Handorf with some personnel going to I. and II./ KG 54 while others were posted to Nightfighter units.[1]

1 Sep 1942 - formed at Catania (Sicily) by redesignating K.Gr.806 - operational with Ju 88A-4.[1]

IV(Erg.)./KG 54

11 Jul 1940 - formed originally as an Ergänzungstaffel at Lager Lechfeld (nr Augsberg) using personnel from the dissolved Stabstaffel/KG 54 and others from III.KG 54. Equipment was Ju88s and He 111.

Operational Duties

1939

Polish Invasion, one staffel each of I and II Gruppe.

Image:He_111_in_the_workshop.jpg

1940

19 Apr 1940 - I and II./KG 54 used to reinforce Fliegerkorps X. Other units included KG 30, 1./KG 40, II and III./LG 1. [2][3]

21 Apr 1940 - 17 He 111Ps of II./KG 54 attacked shipping in Namsfjord. During this operation a number of KG 54 aircraft strayed into Swedish airspace.[3]

5./ KG 54 He111P of Uffz Gunter Golz was fired pon by the Swedish Destroyer Nordenskjold and was also attacked by a Swedish Airforce fighter. The He 111 eventually forcelanded and the crew were interned.[3]

Two aircraft of 4 Staffel became lost in the bad weather - B3+CM (Lt Alfred Kiefer) landed on a beach on Gotland Island, whie B3+JM (Lt Hans Shute) landed on Gotland - both crews were interned. [3]

23 Apr 1940 - 52 He 111s of KG 4, LG 1 and II./KG 54, plus 25 Ju 88s of LG 1 and KG 30 attacked supply lines in the area Dombas- Ota - Hjelle and also, once again, attacked shipping in Moldefjord and Romsdalfjord.[3]

26 Apr 1940 - 46 He 111s of KG 4, KG 26, KG 54 and LG 1 attacked road and railway targets in the Vinstra-Dovra-Dombas-Aadalsnes areas of Norway.[3]

3 He 111 from 4./KG 54 in conjunction with three from 5./KG 4 were sent on an armed recce over the Otta-Loma Grotli area.[3]

27 Apr 1940 - KG 54 together with KG 26 and G 1 furnished a total of 61 He 111s for attacks on Aandalsnes town and harbour, shipping in Moldefjord and Romsdalsfjord and other targets - KG 30 also sent 34 Ju 88s to take part in these attacks.[3]

30 Apr 1940 - KG 54 together with KG 4, KGr. 100 and LG 1 sent 65 He 111s to attack shipping found between Aalesund and Aandalsnes following up on an early morning recce flight by an aircraft of KuFlGr. 506.[3]

1 May 1940 - Control of KG 54 passed from Luftflotte 5 to Luftflotte 2.[3]

May 10, 1940 - Took part in German air attacks against airfields in France, Belguim and Holland, together with railway junctions, tank and troop concentrations and their surounding areas.

Summer 1940 – Operational under Luftflotte 3. Stab and I./KG 54 located at Evreax with II./KG 54 at St. Andre D'Leure.[4]

Image:KG_54_He_111_Crash.jpg

I./KG 54 took off for the first sorties at 02.45[5]

Day and nights operations during the “Battle of Britian” and the subsequent night blitz.

Image:KG_54_He_111_Crash_a.jpg

4/5 Jul 1940 - III/KG 54 operating from Le Bourget sent out a single He 111, this aircraft took-off at 10.00 hrs on weather reporting sortie that was to incluse an attack on Bristol's Filton aircraft factory. The aircraft was lost crashing at Gillingham in Dorset.[6]

8/9 Jul 1940 - III/KG 54 again operating from Le Bourget sent out 3 He 111 on a night attack on Grain Silo & Electricity Works nr. Bristol with 8 SC 250.[6]

13 Jul 1940 - took part in early morning raids against Portsmouth.[7]

19 Jul 1940 - The KG 54 I2 informed III./KG 54 that there were 5 aircraft to be handed over to KG 55 (it was not clear by whom). Part of KG 54 would receive six aircraft, to be sent to Ausbildungsstaffel KG 54 at Handorf, together with 3 Ju88 of III./KG 54. KG 51 would receive four aircraft; these were being equipped at the time with vitally important controls. They were, when ready, to be taken to Le Bourget and handed over to the Geschwader. [8]

21 Jul 1940 - V. Fl.Korps sent word to KG 54 and JG 2 that the Paris parade would not be held, those concerned returning to their units. [8]

Late afternoon, the Kommodore of ZG 2 announced that a single aircraft of KG 54 might be expected to arrive at Caen late that evening on return from operations against the enemy. [8]

Early evening, the Kommodore of ZG 2 questioned the planned escort duties for a joint operation with KG 54. He was uncertain if it had been carried out as the weather at the selected rendezvous was very bad. [8]

22 Jul 1940 - Crews of III./KG 54 are notified they are on leave unto 24/7 (inclusive). [8]

Orders for 23 July issued by Fl.Korps: One group (I./KG 54?) of KG 54 to be in a state of readiness 2 from 0700 against sea targets; attacks only to be carried out by order of the Korps. [8]

23 Jul 1940 - III./KG 54 reported from Handorf that it had transferred 5 He 111 to KG 55, 5 to KG 51 at Le Bourget and 3 Ju 88 and 6 He 111 to Erg./KG 54. 6 He 111s remain, of which 2 have been detached, but not yet removed. [8]

KG 54 and JG 2 were notified that Räum- and Schnellbooten were to be active in the Channel near the French and Belgian coasts between 17.00 hrs and 15.00 hrs Z on 24 July. They were similarly notified that aircraft in distress over the Irish Sea/North Channel area and are unable to return to their base, are to attempt to land in Eire, but at the same time to take care to avoid the neighbourhood of the Northern Ireland border. The formations are to be supplied with details of the aerodrome organisations in Eire in due course. V Fl.Korps also informed the two units that all crews should be supplied with dye-bags, two per person. A further two per person would be supplied as a reserve. The number needed was to be communicated to V.Fl.Korps by the following day. [8]

Hptm Freimann of III./KG 54 was to be transferred to Erg.KG Quedlinburg, while a Staffelkapitän from there would replace him. [8]

It appears the establishment of KG 54’s LN Zug was 38 men, while actual strength was only 33. [8]

Stab./KG 54 received a report from Luftflotte 5 that the supply depot intended to withdraw all Lotfe 7b bombsights, in use by bomber formations, which have not already been replaced by the Lotfe 7C. The Lotfe 7b were to be converted in “Kreiselgeräte” (? Gyroscopic sights) by the Zeiss works at Jena. It was pointed out that the change was in the unit’s own interest. [8]

24 Jul 1940 – Mid-evening I./KG 54 was ordered to be at readiness 2 against sea-targets from early morning on 25 July. [8]

Orders were issued indicating that the bomber aimers of III./KG 54 were to be distributed between the I and II Gruppen after the formers dissolution. On the same day, Stab./KG 54 requested the supply of 722 dye-bags for its subsidiary units. [8]

25 Jul 1940 - KG 54 requested 320 pairs of goggles for eye protection. [8]

28 Jul 1940 - Early in the evening III./KG 54 asked II./KG 54 what the condition of night illumination was at Chartres. [8]

Orders from V Fl.Korps for 29 July as follows: One Gruppe of KG 54 to be at readiness 2 to attack sea targets from the early morning. It is again pointed out the quays in the harbour areas along the south coast of England are not to be attacked under any circumstance. [8]

29 Jul 1940 - Orders from V Fl.Korps for 30 July as follows: 1 Gruppe of KG 54 in readiness 2 to attack sea targets from early morning. [8]

During the morning V. Fl.Korps telexed KG 54 the following: One gruppe will prepare instructional and technical details for installation of SBO (Seilbomben) for the destruction of high-tension cables. Special orders will be issued when operations are to take place. One crew together with a NCO bomb aimer are to be sent for instruction at a course at Rechlin for two days. They are to arrive by evening of 30th at the latest. [8]

KG 54 enquired about the whereabouts of Ju 88 WNr 7101. They also wished to know from which service park WNr 7789 was drawn from and on whose orders 7095 and [70?]77 had been allotted to them. Oblt von Böckmann informed KG 54 that the two Ju 88s they were interested in were not for III./KG 54, but the Schulestaffel. [8]

V. Fl.Korps asked III./KG 54 for a strength return of all ground crew. Surplus ground crew that had been trained under KG 250 were to be distributed to I./ and II./ KG 54. [8]

V. Fl.Korps reported that it only had 90 pairs of protective goggles available for KG 54. They could be collected from Luftpark St Cyr. [8]

Five men of Erg./KG 54 were killed in the crashed of W.34 WL-ORYS. According to Bergungstrupp Kastellaun they were buried at Ville-Devant-Chaumont. [8]

30 Jul 1940 - The rear HQ of III./KG 54 reported to Stab./KG 54 that all but the ground units had been dissolved. Luftgau VI was to dissolve the ground personnel that day, but by early afternoon that was changed to Luftflotte 3. Flying personnel of the Gruppe had been shared by the I and II Gruppen, with transport provided by the Ergänzungsgruppe. [8]


31 Jul 1940 - I./KG 54 faced stiff interrogation from the Accident Examination Dept. of Luftflotte 3 about the crash of W.34 WL-ORYS. It replied:

1) Aircraft left Worms-Biblis for Coulommiers late afternoon on 18 July.

2) This question could not be answered at the time as communication with Germany was wanting. (On 18/7 in Worms there was neither a meteotrological station or Air HQ, as both had already left for Coulommiers. The pilot had therefore to get his weather report from meteo-station Mannheim-Sandhofen.)

3) The aircraft was at the disposal of Fliegerhorst Coulommiers for fetching important personnel from Worms. (The whole Fliegerhorst Worms has been transferred to Coulommiers.)

4) Pilot had – certificate, was well acquainted with W.34 and had a hitherto blameless record.

Oblt Östermann informed the Erg.St./KG 54 at Munster-Handorf that I./KG 54 required, from Flughafen bereicht Castelaun near Verdun, a detailed report about the defects in W.34 WL-ORYS, which had crashed on 18 July. [8]

Orders from V Fl.Korps for 1 August as follows: 1 Gruppe of KG 54 to be at readiness 2 to attack sea targets from early morning. [8]

1 Aug 1940 – Evening, orders from V Fl.Korps for 2 August as follows: 1 Gruppe of KG 54 to be at readiness to attack sea targets from early morning. [8]

Inspector Schumann of KG 54 reported to “Freischütz” the following concerning equipment: Clothing and equipment adequate for original personnel, but not entirely so for new drafts. The Geschwader needed 210 blankets, 325 zeltbahnen and 1020 body belts. The Staffeln lacked iron rations owing to shortage of transport and storage facilities. Deficit was 645 full and curtailed rations. [8]

2 Aug 1940 - B3+GK of I./KG 54 arrived at Evreux from Münster-Loddenheide [8]

V. Fl.Korps informed KG 54 that ground staff of III./KG 54, now dispersed, were to be placed under the command of a suitable officer and sent to Villacoublay and placed and the disposal of the Korps. [8]

Oblt von Böckmann radioed weather details of Worms – Coulommiers to KG 54. [8]

3 Aug 1940 - V. Fl.Korps informed KG 54 that Luftflotte 3 had approved the increased vehicle establishment of bomber, dive-bomber and heavy-fighter formations, as follows:

Geschwader HQ: 1 lorry, 3 cars (or motorcycles)

Gruppe HQ: 2 lorries, 3 cars [8]

13 Aug 1940 - KG 54 attacked Portland and lost three aircraft during this sortie. Hptm. Strauch of Stab II./KG 54 coming down near Arundel.

Earlier in the day KG 54 also lost an aircraft in an attack on the Royal Aircraft Establishment at Farborough. Oblt. Ostermann being killed.[9]

Date Unit Aircraft Type Code Wkr.No. Notes
13 Aug 1940 Stab I/KG54 Ju88A-1 B3+ DB Shot down by Hurricanes of 43 and 601 Sqdns. Exploded on impact in Phillis Wood, Treyford at 06.30.

Oblt. J. Oestermann is recorded as being MIA while Uffz. F. Rösler, Ogefr. K. Brieger and Uffz. K. Seltz all baled out to become POWs.[6]

13 Aug 1940 6./KG 54 Ju 88A B3+TP Attacked by Hurricanes of 43 and 601 Sqdns over the Isle of Wight while on a bombing sortie to RAE Farnborough. The Ju 88 was relatively undamaged. Following the attacks the engines started to fail and Gefr. G. Niessl baled out to become a POW. The remainder of the crew – Lt. Siescher, Gefr. Handelmeier and Ogfr. Hosport were all uninjured.[10]
13 Aug 1940 Stab II./KG 54 Ju88A-1 Shot down by Hurricanes of 43 and 601 Sqdns while on a bombing sortie to RAE Farnborough. Crashed and exploded at Swanbourne lake, Arundel at approx. 06.30.

Oblt H. Rose and Uffz. H. Scholz both baled out to become POWs. Fw. W. Bickel baled out but was killed. Hptm. A-W Strouch baled out and was found hanging in a tree. However, he died of his wounds two days later.[11]

Image:Ju88_KG54_crashed.jpg

21 Aug 1940 - On this day KG 54 lost three aircraft. One aircraft attacked Brize Norton and was intercepted, the crew abandoned the Ju 88 north of Selsey Bill (Hptm. Maiwald)[12]

Date Unit Aircraft Type Code Wkr.No. Notes
21 Aug 1940 1./KG 54 Ju 88A-1 Shot down by aircraft of 234 Sqdn. Crashed and burned at King's Sambourne at 14.15.

Oblt. M-D Birkenstock, Ogfr. G. Freude, Uffz. R. Schlze and Gefr F. Becker all MIA.[13]

21 Aug 1940 4./KG 54 Ju 88A-1 B3+BM The aircraft's engines were hit by AA Fire during an attack on Brize Norton airfield. The Ju 88 was also subject to attacks by Hurricanes of 17 Sqdn and finally crashed at Marsh farm, Earnley at 16.15.

Hptm. L.Maiwald, Ogfr. H. Apollony, Uffz. K. Miethner and Uffz H. Hempel at POWs.[14]

4/5 Oct 1940 – 2 Ju 88s of II./KG 54 were over London depositing 2 SC 1000 bombs. The aircraft were unable to observe the results of the bombing.[15]

5/6 Oct 1940 – I./KG 54 took part in the attack on London - by two Ju88s between 3:30 hrs and 3:52 hrs with two SC1000, one Flam 250, four SC50 and seventy two B1 (incendaries). Bombing was performed by dead reckoning and the results were not able to be observed.[16]

A third Ju 88 had icing issues and deposited its load of one SC 1000 and four SC 50s 20 Km south of London.[17]

6 Oct 1940 – 11 Ju 88s of I./KG 54 set out between 13.45 hrs and 14.36 hrs for London arriving over the target between 14.56 hr and 15.50 hrs. Total bomb load amounted to 5 SC 1000; 2 SC 500; 2 Flam 250 and 30 SC 50. Results were not viewed due to the extensive cloud cover.[18]

A planned attack by two Ju 88s of I./KG 54 on the Wolseley Motor Works north-east of Birmingham did not take place. One Ju 88 abandoned the sortie over the Channel dumping its bomb load due to heavy icing. While the second also aborted the mission, it diverted to the secondary target of London with its load of one SC1000 and four SC 50s.[19]

7 Oct 1940 – 16 Ju 88s from II./KG 54 took off between 12.45 hrs and 14.43 hrs to take part in the daylight attack on London – between 14.25 and 15.58 hrs twelve aircraft dropped the following ordnance on the target: 5 SC 1000; 8 SC 500; 10 SC 250; 2 Flam 250 and 2 AB 36 containers. A single Ju 88 deposited its load in Hertford and three other aircraft aborted the sortie.[20]

7/8 Oct 1940 – I./KG 54 committed 5 Ju 88s to the attack on London this night.[21]

10/11 Oct 1940 – 8 Ju 88s from I./KG 54 and 9 Ju 88s from II,/KG 54 took part in the raid on London that night.[22]

2/3 Dec 1940 – I./KG 54 (operating from Evreux) and II./ KG 54 (operating from St. André) each provided 4 aircraft for the 132 aircraft raid on the Bristol Docks and Harbour area.[6]


1941

Continued night operations against England until the end of May.

3/4 Jan 1941 – Aircraft from I./KG 54 (8 Ju 88) and II./KG 54 (6 Ju 88) operating under the control of Luftflotte 2 took part in the combined Luftflotte 2 and 3 attack against Bristol City centre. The I./KG 54 aircraft carried a mix of explosive and incendiary bombs while those from II./KG 54 carried high explosive and fire bombs (Flam).[6]

4/5 Jan 1941 - Aircraft from I./KG 54 (4 Ju 88) and II./KG 54 (5 Ju 88) operating under the control of Luftflotte 2 took part in the combined Luftflotte 2 and 3 attack against the Avonmouth docks. Of a total of 165 aircraft despatched 103 reported attacking their target.[6]

9/10 Jan 1941 – II./KG 54 sent out a single Ju 88 from St. André with orders to attack its primary target of Manchester with Bristol as an alternative. This was one of a number of single aircraft with tagets in the Bristol area as alternatives.[6]

16/17 Jan 1941 – I and II./KG 54 took part in the major attack on Avonmouth committing 14 and 9 aircraft (Ju88) respectively.[6]


June 1941 – Moved to Polish bases in preparation for the assault on Russia. From 22 June employed in attacks on tank columns, bridges, airfields, troop concentrations, railway junctions etc.

1942

Jan 1942 – Stab, I and III Gruppe (formerly KGr 806) transferred to Catania (Sicily) at the beginning of the month. Commenced operations against Malta, flights to North Africa and anti-shipping strikes over the Med.

II Gruppe remained operational in Russia.

Image:KG54_Ju88.jpg

2 Feb 1942 – 6./KG 54 lost a Ju 88 shot down while attacking Soviet troops. The aircraft was struck by ground fire in the port engine and belly landed in the snow. Lt. Johannes Griessler (F), Gefr. Siegfried Wittmer and the rest of the crew spent the next four days walking back to the German front line. [23]


13 Feb 1942 – Ju 88s from II./KG 54 attacked a Russian transport column. They succeeded in knocking out one tank and set three trucks on fire.[24]


14 Feb 1942 – II./KG 54 flew sorties against Soviet tropps attempting to relieve a surrounded russian pocket SW of Rzhev. During these actions the Gruppe lost Ju 88s of Hptm. Heinz Gehrke (Gr. Kd.) and one other crew.[25]


Image:Ju88_KG_54_4051.jpg

4 Mar 1942 – II./KG 54 attacked a soviet supply column in the Rzhev area. The Ju88s were in turn attacked by Russian fighters and lost three crews including that of the acting Gruppen Kommanduer – Oblt. Gunther Seubert.[26]


1943

Operations from Catania against Harbours and shipping along the Tunisian/North African Coast.

Due to the final loss of Tunisia KG54 moved to the Italian mainland in preparation for operations against the expected invasion of Sicily and subsequently Italy.

Image:JU88_KG_54_B3-IM.jpg

II Gruppe moved from Russia to Vienna-Aspern airfield for recuperation.

1944

The complete geschwader was transferred to the western front and commenced operations from German home airfields.

Mid-Jan 1944 - I./KG 54 were based at Wittmundhafen, while II./ KG 54 were at Marx.[27]

21-22 Jan 1944 - I. and II./KG 54 took part in the first of the "Steinbock" raids. This was an attack on London - specifically the area South East of Waterloo station, codenamed Muenchen - the bombers made landfall north of Southend.[27]

29-30 Jan 1944 - Luftwaffe operations over the UK extended from Suffolk to Hampshire with a large concentration over the Thames Estuary. KG 54 took part in these sorties.[27]

Date Unit Aircraft Type Code Wkr.No. Notes
29-30 Jan 1944 KG 54 Ju 88A-4 B3+AL 300228 Crashed at Barham (NE of Ipswich) after being attacked by a Beaufighter of 68 Sqdn.

1-2 Mar 1944 – A total of seventy aircraft set out across the English Coast to attack London but only ten reached their target. Units with aircraft committed to this raid are believed to have also included KG6, KG66 and KG100.

14-15 Mar 1944 -I./KG 54, based at Wittmundhafen, and II./ KG 54, based at Marx, took part in the raid on London. Other units included - I, II and III./KG 2; I and II./KG 3; I, II and III./KG6; II and III./KG 30; and KG 51. Diversionary sorties were to be operated by SKG 10s FW 190s.

This raid was to target "Hamburg"(Government buildings within a 500 metre radius of Westminster Abbey). Take-off commenced at 21.00, joining the main stream of bombers over the North Sea and set course for the turning point at Cambridge. Landfall was mainly made between yarmouth and Southwold, crossing the coast at heights between 14,000 and 24,000ft. KG 54 were timed to arrive over target at approx 23.00 with the last aircraft leaving at 2312 - bombing height was planned to be 4,000m. Aircraft from I./KG 54 were not to return to Wittmundhafen but were to land at Juvincourt.[28][27]

Date Unit Aircraft Type Code Wkr.No. Notes
14-15 Mar 1944 2./KG 54 Ju 88A-14 B3+CK Shot down by nightfighter of 410 Sqdn near Tunbridge Wells. Unt.Heide and crew bailed out and became POWs.[28]

20 Mar 1944 - Luftflotte 3 Order of battle recorded the following for KG 54:-

Stab - 3 Ju 88 of which all were serviceable.

I Gruppe - 17 Ju 88 of which 9 were serviceable.

II Gruppe - 19 Ju 88 of which 14 were serviceable.[28]

21-22 Mar 1944 – The Luftwaffe despatched 144 aircraft for this raid of which their records report 123 having bombed their targets, 7 aircraft bombing emrgency targets, 14 aborting and 11 being lost. However, the UK reporting service recorded that a total of approximately 95 aircraft crossed the English Coast for London. Apart from KG 54 the following units were also involved :- KG6, KG30, KG51 and KG66.

24-25 Mar 1944 - A major effort was made with 143 aircraft taking part in a raid on London. Other units, apart from KG54, taking part were KG2, KG6 KG30 and it was led inevitably the pfadfinders of KG66

27-28 Mar 1944 - Strike on Bristol - Luftwaffe claimed to have attacked this city with 139 aircraft although no bombs struck the town. Aircraft were plotted over the whole of southern England. Units involved were KG2, KG6, KG30, KG54 and KG66.

Subsequent move to Giebelstadt and Kitzingen for conversion from the Ju 88 to the Me 262 and a change of operational status to that of Jagdgeschwader – the unit designation being changed to KG(J)54.

1945

Committed to operations on the Western Front both in the air and surrplus personnel and infantry.

At the end of the war the remains of KG(J)54 were to be found around Prague and in Central Germany.

Losses

Date Unit Aircraft Type Code Wkr.No. Notes

7Sep40 II/KG54 Ju88A-1 B3+AM 6032 Shot down by an early cannon armed Spitfire of 7 OTU. Crew killed or missing.

18Sep40 II/KG54 Ju88A-1 B3+CP 0226 Lost to Hurricanes while operating against South Coast convoys. Crew listed on returns as missing.

19Sep40 II/KG54 Ju88A-1 B3+HM 4148 Believed shot down by British flak – crew missing.

17Sep40 I/KG54 Ju88A-1 B3+OL 2152 Missing from combat sortie over England – crew killed – fate not known.

Contributions

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References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 larry de Zeng and Douglas Stankey - Bomber units of the Luftwaffe, Midland
  2. Hooten - Pheonix Triumphant p229, Brockhampton Press
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Shores et al - Fledgling Eagles
  4. McKay Ron – Crowood Aviation Ju 88 p27
  5. Hooten - Pheonix Triumphant p239, Brockhampton Press
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 Penny, John - The Luftwaffe over the Bristol area
  7. Smith and Creek - kampflieger Volume 2, Classic
  8. 8.00 8.01 8.02 8.03 8.04 8.05 8.06 8.07 8.08 8.09 8.10 8.11 8.12 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.16 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.22 8.23 8.24 8.25 8.26 8.27 8.28 8.29 8.30 HW5/3 via Adam Thompson 18 Mar 2018
  9. McKay Ron - Crowood Aviation Ju 88 p31.
  10. Ramsay et al – Blitz Then and Now Vol 1 p 190
  11. Ramsay et al – Blitz Then and Now Vol 1 p 190
  12. McKay Ron - Crowood Aviation Ju 88 p31.
  13. Ramsay et al – Blitz Then and Now Vol 1 p 222
  14. Ramsay et al – Blitz Then and Now Vol 1 p 222
  15. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p891
  16. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p907/8
  17. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p907/8
  18. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p921
  19. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p920
  20. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p925
  21. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p959
  22. T321 R88 Luftflottenkommando 3 p1001
  23. Bergstrom, Christer – Black Cross/Red Star V2 p48
  24. Bergstrom, Christer – Black Cross/Red Star V2 p50
  25. Bergstrom, Christer – Black Cross/Red Star V2 p50
  26. Bergstrom, Christer – Black Cross/Red Star V2 p107
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Bowyer, Michael - Air raid, PSL
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 Wakefield, Ken - Pfadfinder, Tempus
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